Friday, November 14, 2008

Eugenics in Communist China

Article on Eugenics, positive and negative, in Communist China - and it retains the Creative Darwinism of the much maligned TDL.


While striving to control the growth of population in China, our nation’s family planners have simultaneously taken serious note of the importance eugenics represents as a field of inquiry. Eugenics is currently being promoted in China. Although literally it means,”superior births,” the essence of eugenics can be found in the expression, “the birth of that which is better,” that is to say, the birth of children whose prenatal characteristics are excellent. Naturally, if one wishes to see that every family is able to produce healthy, intelligent children, then it is necessary to study eugenics, to popularize the knowledge of this field and to master its principles.

1. Eugenics is the science of the ways in which the genetic constitution of man can be improved. Eugenics is divided into two branches. The first of these is that which is preventive in nature. This,”subdivision, ” of eugenics seeks to carry out research with the view of determining ways by which the birth of unhealthy offspring in generations to come can be avoided. Its point of departure is “disease” prevention. The second subdivision of eugenics is that which is progressive in nature. In essence, its research efforts are undertaken in an attempt to determine the means by
which the birth of future generations composed of outstanding genetic make-up can be brought about. Both subdivisions of eugenics are devoted to the improvement of man’s hereditary nature. The field of eugenics is therefore the science of improving the inherited character of man.

A. Eugenics, its origins and development. Eugenics was first brought into being by the English biologist and anthropologist, Francis Galton. Some 100 years have now passed since its inception. While observing the phenomena of biological inheritance during the 1870’s, Galton discovered that many of man’s diseases were transmitted to later generations. At the same time, he noted that the positive physical and mental attributes of husband and wife would be inherited by their offspring, male or female. In view of this observation, Galton advanced the doctrine which postulated that selective marriages could improve the human species by weeding out those marriages
characterized by the poor qualities of their participants and fostering the increase of those having excellent characteristics. In 1883, he christened this doctrine eugenics. The American, Curt Stem, brought eugenics into its modern form by subdividing its general field of inquiry into the aforementioned branches in 1960.(1) Historically, the development of eugenics has passed through a circuitous route indeed. In the 1930’s, eugenics provided proponents of both fascism and racism with a splendid opportunity. Unabashedly, eugenics was co-opted to promote racism. Hitler openly proclaimed that the Aryan race possessed the finest genetic qualities. while encouraging marriages between members of the Aryan race, the Nazi leader oversaw the condemnation of hundreds of thousands of Jews and Gypsies to the concentration camps where mass exterminations were carried out. These genocidal acts gave rise to worldwide opposition and condemnation. Misunderstandings arose and eugenics was, perforce, viewed as a science which at heart served only the goals of racial discrimination.

Eugenics thus became a forbidden field in the minds of many people and remained so for a long time. In addition to the above-described social history of eugenics, specialists in the field came to look at questions from a purely biological standpoint; undue emphasis was placed on the biological nature of man, and factors pertaining to his social nature were generally overlooked. This was particularly true with regard to questions concerning the inheritance of intelligence. Eugenics was to fall into a quagmire because I.Q. was taken as the only standard of intelligence. In
actuality, the intelligence of man is the result of the interaction of prenatal-genetic and postnatal-social factors. By relying solely on intelligence tests, it is exceedingly difficult to determine the extent to which both genetic and social influences, as well as the role of the individual, contribute to the aggregate result we call intelligence. (2) Due to the above noted reasons, not an inconsiderable number of people came to lose confidence in the scientific nature of eugenics and, as a result, much time was to pass without further questions being raised about it in China.

In recent years, however, the requirements of modern science, technology and production and the speed with which their development has taken place have resulted in increasing societal demands for a population with attributes of a high quality. Moreover, at the same time both the number and kinds of genetic diseases have been multiplying. This situation has led to eugenics being placed more distinctly in front of peoples from diverse nations. China is in this respect no exception, and the People’s Republic of China has once again begun to regard this field with serious concern.

Our country is increasing its research efforts in this field and popularizing its findings.

B. The theoretical basis for eugenics is genetics. So as to form a clear and definite picture of this theoretical basis, it is necessary, first, to examine briefly genetics as a separate field. To begin, we can divide genetics into two general parts.

a) Heredity.
For example, the daughter of the Zhang family resembles her mother. The son of the Li family looks like his father, while the grandson of this family resembles his paternal grandfather and a nephew looks like his uncle, etc. All of these are examples of genetic phenomena. The philosopher Wang Ting-Xiang of the Sung dynasty once noted that if an individual did not resemble his father, then he would look like his mother. Subsequent generations would surely have both the physique as well as the facial appearance of their ancestors. The father of evolutionary theory, Charles Darwin, also noted that children inevitably display certain characteristics derived from both parents and their ancestors further back. The process of transmitting this kind of biological constitution and physiological function among organisms from generation to generation is thus what is known as heredity.

b) Variation.
Whether we speak of the daughter of the Zhang family or the son of the Li family, there will always be characteristics which do not resemble either those of the mother or those of the father. A colloquial expression holds that,”a woman who gives birth to 9 children, the 10 of them will still all be different.” Even if the birth of twins comes to pass, there will also be (some) differences between them.(3) This phenomenon is what is called variation. Genetics is thus a science which studies the laws of heredity and variation. Yet one might ask why eugenics would take genetics as its theoretical foundation.

The answer to this question lies in the fact that the multiplicity of man has been brought about by the processes of heredity and variation. From the gibbon, to tailless ape, to contemporary man, variation has been a condition of evolution; without variation in living organisms, evolution and the rise of modern man would not have come to pass. The human species has traversed one hundred centuries and one thousand generations. (4) That man is still man is the consequence of heredity. Had there been no heredity, but only variation, mankind early onwards would have evolved into a very different form. However it is necessary to come to terms with the fact that the genes transmit both beneficial and harmful qualities to subsequent generations. Variation can eliminate the undesirable aspects of man’s natural constitution, and it can likewise cause an increase in harmful qualities experienced generations later.

In light of this, we must learn the laws of both heredity and variation. In so doing, we will be able to develop those factors which are beneficial to mankind. By fostering the growth of those attributes which are inherently good, and eliminating those features which are decidedly bad, populations could thus increase gradually in number and quality, and the consequences of eugenics could see fruition. From this overall standpoint, it is not difficult to see that genetics serves as the theoretical foundation of eugenics.

Some claim, however, that the co-option of genetics as the research foundation from which to conduct studies in eugenics implies a strictly hereditarian view of man. This view is erroneous. Eugenics in fact emphasizes the cardinal functions which both the objective environment and subjective forces play in man’s health and development. It must be borne in mind, furthermore, that our genetic foundation underpins intelligence, physical strength, life span, and other aspects of human health. The outstanding gifts of talented individuals are a joint function of both constitutional and post-natal factors. Our genetic foundation determines the possibility of becoming gifted, while the social environment and subjective forces inherent in one’s post-natal conditions are the subsequent decisive factors which determine whether or not the potential for such a gift can be realized.

With the view of increasing the possibilities for man to become more gifted, the results of eugenic research are directed toward more fully providing for that end. With genetics as its basis, the field of eugenics is established on an objective, materialistic foundation. In view of this, eugenics can hardly be considered as strictly hereditarian and should be viewed simply in a materialistic vein. At the present time, genetics has established that the material foundation of both heredity and variation is the gene. It is well known that the cell constitutes the most basic unit of the human body. The basic structure of the cell includes the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus. The nucleus of the cell is itself composed of various structures and component parts.

Among these are the chromosomes, which control heredity and variation. The chromosomes are a group of clava of various sizes. Only at the time when the cell divides can we observe chromosomes under a powerful microscope. Their most important component is a kind of molecular substance, deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA. Heredity’s smallest, most basic unit is the gene. While the messengers of inheritance are genes, the chromosome is the storehouse of the gene. The gene is the smallest molecular component of DNA. Within its internal alkali lies the sequential order which contains the genetic code. The messages of inheritance are passed through these genetic codes on to later generations. This system is somewhat similar to the messages sent by coded telegrams from one party to another. Actually, without the gene, inheritance of traits would be impossible. In sum, the material foundation for both heredity and variation lies in the gene. Because every chromosome has countless numbers of genes, the impact of a chromosome abnormality on descendants is significantly greater than that of a gene abnormality.

There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in the normal cell. Twenty-two pairs are regular chromosomes common to both males and females However, one pair is that which determines the sex of the individual. For males and females they are different. We use symbols to express the nature of the sex chromosome. The male sex chromosome is
labeled Y, while that of the female is known as X. The number of chromosomes in the human cell nucleus is permanently fixed. If it were otherwise, an abnormality would appear. For example, if a human being were to have more than two #21 chromosomes, a deformity would occur. Congenital dementia would be one manifestation, for instance. A woman having one less X chromosome would suffer from glandular hypoplasia, manifesting itself as dwarfism, insufficient development, etc. Hereditary diseases which result from changes in the number and construction of chromosomes are called
chromosome abnormalities. Such abnormalities can come from either side, male or female, and can also originate from both sides at the same time.

With regard to marriage and reproduction, we must carefully consider genetic factors; this is because genetic diseases transmitted to offspring are intimately related to the heredity of their mother and father, and to that of their forefathers as well. With respect to mental disorders, for example, one per cent of a population develops schizophrenia. Should either parent be so afflicted, the rate of schizophrenic illness for later generations reaches some 12%. Should both parents be diagnosed as schizophrenic, the rate of illness for subsequent generations climbs to a high of 39%.(5) According to an investigation of one clan where a certain individual suffered from a mental disorder, out of 6 generations of directly related and collaterally related individuals comprising 73 members, 25 were afflicted with mental disease, or 34.2%. The closer the tie of blood, the greater the possibility of affliction. This makes it abundantly clear that the factors of heredity must be carefully considered when questions of marriage and reproduction are under consideration. One must know, for example, whether either of the marriage partners has genetic ailments or a family history of hereditary disease. Those suffering from such critical illnesses as, for example, leprosy or nervous disorders, should not marry. Individuals afflicted with, for example, acute infectious diseases, tuberculosis, and serious heart, liver, or kidney ailments, should refrain from marriage pending treatment and cure. Still other
individuals with ailments may marry but should not procreate. Those allowed to have children should pay special attention to the physician’s instructions during pregnancy. They should undergo a prenatal diagnosis to prevent an abnormal birth. It is especially important to point out how inappropriate marriages are which take place between relatives, i.e., marriages between siblings - brothers and sisters - as well as marriages between collateral relatives within the third degree of consanguinity (that is, marriages between first cousins and between uncles and nieces).(6)

According to statistics, the incidence of congenital and genetic disease among the issue of marriages consummated between relatives was some 150 times that among offspring of unrelated individuals. The death rate of the offspring of closely related parents was more than three times that of offspring of unrelated parents. What accounts for such statistics? Genetics has shown that the chromosomes within the nucleus of the cell are the sites of the genes of heredity. Half of these are passed down from the father, with the remaining half from the mother. When both mother and father possess the same harmful genes, and these genes are mixed together, an unhealthy infant will be the result. Within the normal cell exists at least 50,000 genes; there are already some 2,600 kinds of genetic diseases and some 300 types of chromosome diseases known to man. Every person has individual genes which are harmful. However, under conditions where marriage partners are not closely related, it is exceedingly unlikely for both sides to have the same pernicious genes. Should one side possess one or many destructive genes, it is not necessarily the case that the corresponding gene of the other side shares the same defect. If they marry, the defective gene of the one side will be subsumed by the normal gene of the other side, and the infant will still be healthy. Marriages between close relatives are quite different, however. As they share a common ancestry, the opportunities for receiving similar defective genes are significantly greater. For example, surprisingly 1/8 of the genes in first cousins are the same; 1/32 of the genes in second cousins are held in common. Should these individuals marry each other, it would be much easier for a match of defective genes to take place than would be the case normal; the birth of an unhealthy or abnormal child would be the likely result. A popular saying during China’s,”Warring States Period,” held that the child of a man and woman having the same last name would not thrive. In recent years, genetic specialists have calculated that the complete prohibition of cousin marriages would result in a 20% drop in the rate of births of infants who are congenitally deaf mutes. It would also cause a decline of some 15% in the rate of infants born afflicted with adolescent amaurotic
idiocy. As can readily be seen, the prohibition against marriages between close relatives is in keeping with the tenets of eugenics.

The above makes obvious that eugenics possesses considerable significance for mankind. In striving to produce better offspring, a significant number of countries are promulgating eugenic rules and regulations explicitly prohibiting marriages between close relatives as well as marriages between and reproduction by people suffering from genetic and other disorders.(7)

China’s new marriage law also includes eugenic provisions. Marriages between people directly or collaterally related within three generations are expressly prohibited. Persons who are afflicted with leprosy and who have not received treatment and been cured, as well as with other illnesses the nature of which is deemed by medical professors to make marriage inadvisable for those so afflicted, will be prohibited from wedlock. But these measures are still inadequate. As eugenic research becomes widespread and acquires depth, the legal code of China will include more regulations
concerning the ways by which the idea of healthier offspring can be given reality.

II. Eugenics: preventive and progressive methods by which healthier offspring can be achieved. A. Measures which are preventive in character. Genetic consultation. Physicians or specialists who advise persons suffering from hereditary illness, as well as their family members, are providing what is called genetic consultation. Individuals with normal health do not ordinarily seek genetic consultation. However, where any of the following 8 conditions obtain, they should do so: 1. persons who have
given birth to children with genetic diseases or congenital malformation, e.g., infants diagnosed as having congenital dementia, cerebrum hypoplasia, congenital heart disease, and ailments of the spinal column; 2. a history of hereditary illness in one’s family, or the birth of abnormal children among persons directly or collaterally related; 3. marriages between close relatives; 4. pregnancies after the age of 35; 5. exposure to chemical or radioactive substances, or having had a viral infection, during the period between the first four and seven weeks of pregnancy; 6. pregnant women with hyperthyroidism, diabetes, asthma, epilepsy, or related medical syndromes; 7. pregnant women suffering from excess amniotic fluid; 8. indications of
amenorrhoea or repeated miscarriages. On the basis of a detailed history of illnesses experienced by both male and female sides, and after considering the genealogy of the subject, his or her physical examination and the results of laboratory tests, the physician may determine whether the offspring could suffer from hereditary illness and make a final judgment on the probability of its occurrence. If the danger is relatively small, then, on the basis of the overall situation, the physician can determine if the pregnancy should be allowed to continue to term. On the other hand, should the danger be comparatively great, it would be better to have an abortion. This will prevent the birth of a defective child.

B. Prenatal Diagnosis.

Diagnoses carried out with respect to the existence of genetic illness or congenital abnormality in the fetus is called prenatal diagnosis. There are many specific procedures. For example, laboratory tests of the mother’s blood or urine may determine whether or not the fetus has infant haemolysis or prenatal metabolic illness; by carrying out an amnion puncture, that is, by extracting a small amount of amniotic fluid from the mother’s uterus, an examination can indicate whether the fetus suffers from chromosome variation or some other genetic and congenital disease. Prenatal diagnosis is not needed for all pregnant women. What is important is that women undergo the aforementioned genetic inquiry and consultation. Should the physician feel that this kind of examination is in the best interests of everyone involved, then a prenatal diagnosis will be made. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic consultation are, as a consequence, often done at the same time. C. Precautionary measures against the effects of harmful environmental agents. Many genetic illnesses as well as deformed children are not the result of hereditary factors. Instead, they are the consequences of parental exposure to harmful environmental agents. Among the most harmful of influences in the environment are radiation, pathogenic bacteria, and chemical products. Individually these agents are able to induce abnormalities; they can introduce into the human body, offspring, and the genes themselves, carcinogens; they can cause mutations. It has been discovered that among all the persons born with congenital defects, some 20% have resulted from exposure to various kinds of environmental substances capable of inducing change. Approximately 60% of all cases are due to both genetic factors and exposure to a damaging environment. High blood pressure and malignant tumors are examples of the latter. In light of the above, we should take preventive measures so as to guard against the danger of such substances. As soon as a woman becomes pregnant, we must endeavor to take extra precautionary measures in this regard. For instance, one must not come into contact with poisons or be exposed to radiation. One must guard against such infectious diseases as urticaria and influenza. One must not abuse medicines. Hormones, sulphanilamide (SN), tetracyclines and streptomycin all can cause damage to the cranial nerve or other abnormalities in the fetus. The physician’s directions concerning the use of medicines must be strictly followed. Furthermore, both smoking and drinking should be avoided. For the pregnant woman who smokes and drinks, a miscarriage, an abnormal fetus, or the development of congenital heart disease, is not unlikely. Lest we should forget, both the mother and the fetus are affected similarly by the smoking of the husband. Drinking can lead to poor growth and development of the offspring. Excessive drinking by a pregnant woman can give rise to fetus alcoholism syndrome manifesting itself in the formation of obstructions in the central nervous system and
the emergence of many kinds of abnormalities. In the past few decades, the incidence of congenital illnesses and abnormal births has increased steadily year by year.(8) One of the principal reasons for this trend is the growing seriousness of environmental pollution. Many of the mutations in the genes resulting from polluted substances are recessive or latent in nature. They require generations to accumulate before becoming manifest.

Because of this, in light of the long-term benefits to be derived by all of the peoples and all of mankind, the work of maintaining an ecological balance and safeguarding the environment is absolutely imperative.( 9) D. Measures to enhance the birth of healthier offspring. Controlling individual development. The process by which the fertilized egg develops from the embryonic state to an infant is known as individual, or specific, development. Controlling individual development means being able to improve the living environment during the course of embryonic and infant
development in order that those factors making for better health can have a fuller, more complete impact on the development of the fetus and infant. For example, during the period of embryonic growth, if one were to employ such means as were available to cause a spurt in brain cell multiplication and reproduction, or if within six months of a birth, when the cells of the brain are still multiplying and reproducing, one were to furnish substances containing great amounts of proteins and nucleic acid, the intellectual development of infants might be further enhanced. E. Genetic Engineering.
Genetic engineering refers to the artificial techniques of assembling genes; it is also known as a technique for reorganizing DNA. At the present time there are many methods with which to prevent and treat genetic illnesses. However, none of these procedures is able to root out a hereditary illness at its source; they are only able to effect cures for the individual afflicted. These diseases thus reappear in later
generations. If one desires to eradicate a genetic defect, the ideal method would be to repair or replace either the gene or the chromosome. The use of such procedures effects a permanent cure, and this is what is known as genetic engineering. While still at the exploratory stage, genetic engineering has created a tempest of controversy. However it should be borne in mind that the prospects for genetic engineering to effect a final cure for hereditary illness as well as to make possible the birth of healthier infants are very bright indeed.

III. Promoting the births of superior children, pushing family planning, and quickening the pace of socialist modernization. At the present time, over 3000 types of genetic diseases are known in the world. Between one and three per cent of human kind suffer from various kinds of hereditary illnesses, while between four and five per cent of newborns are afflicted with genetic diseases. Many of these genetic illnesses are congenital or hereditary in nature, and are extremely dangerous to mankind. On the basis of incomplete statistics, it has been estimated that there are at least 1,200,000 Chinese in the PRC who suffer from congenital dementia. Their
number could be more than 3 million. The living and medical expenses incurred for each person in the course of growing up are at least 5,000 yuan. When this figure is multiplied by 1.2 million, the expenditures made on behalf of these individuals add up to at least 5.5 billion yuan.

Assuming a monthly grain ration of 25 catties (10), they consume some 360 million catties of food grains a year. China is a poor country. Having to make so large an expenditure to feed and provide medical care for those who suffer from the above disease and who, as a result, can contribute nothing to society, is an extra burden for our socialist construction to bear. To cite examples of genetic diseases which are area specific, there are mountainous regions and even individual flatland areas in China where a great many of the occupants suffer from cretinism. Though they consume food and produce children, these deaf mutes are unable to engage in any productive labor at all. According to one estimate, some 2 million people suffer from this illness in China. In some areas, the incidence reaches as high as 2-4% of the population, while in specific production brigades the rate can exceed 10%. In these areas, it is exceedingly difficult to increase production and to implement birth control. Taken together, these problems represent a significant burden on our country. Currently, the incidence of schizophrenia is approximately 0.2%.(11) There are currently about 2 million schizophrenics in our country, and their number is
increasing. On the basis of statistics obtained in 1979, there are no less than 4 to 5 million retarded children in China. However, among the newborn, the proportion of abnormal children is still greater, accounting for roughly 2% of all births. If one were to group together all of the children who suffer from various kinds of birth defects, a figure of more than 10 million would be obtained. This number does not include children who will develop these kinds of problems later in life. Much parental anguish is caused by these children; they are unable to do anything useful; they are a financial and mental burden on their parents; and they pose an increasing burden on our country. It can be seen that socialist modernization urgently needs a reduction or elimination of genetic diseases and hereditary defects. Only by promoting the births of better offspring can we improve the genetic quality of our population, reduce or eliminate a variety of genetic diseases, and thereby lessen the burdens imposed on both family and nation. Therefore, to promote eugenics is to secure immeasurable advantages with no harmful consequences. Such a course of action would carry much significance for the speed at which socialist modernization can proceed.

Eugenics can also play a considerable role in controlling population growth. If a couple gives birth to a disabled or retarded child, they will invariably want to have a second child. As a result, the proportion of our population which is of poor quality increases as does the overall birth rate. Naturally, this does nothing for the quality of our people and lies at cross-purposes with our will to decrease the population of the PRC. If we promote eugenics and make it possible for every couple to have a child with superior physical and intellectual attributes, there will be no need for the mother and father to worry about the health of their descendants. This would also facilitate the control of population growth. In a word, to promote eugenics is to advance family planning. It is also to hasten the realization of the four modernization’ s. It is in accord with the fundamental interests of all levels of our society: nation, collective, family and individual. It is our earnest hope that eugenics should not be construed as a purely expedient measure, but rather as a long-term mission, which concerns the long-term prosperity of the Chinese race in the
centuries ahead. Each one of us, especially the members of the CCP (12) and the Communist Youth League, must bravely endeavor to destroy and eliminate outdated concepts, actively study and propagate the knowledge of eugenics, and bring about the birth of healthier, superior children. By so doing, we will be able to furnish the high quality builders required for the realization of the four modernizations.

(End of translation of an article by Sun Dong-Sheng, Jinan Army Institute, People’s Republic of China)

Translators’ Notes:

(1) Translators’ note: See Curt Stem, Principles of Human Genetics, 2nd edition, San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1960.

(2) Translators’ note: It is obvious from these remarks that the author considers I.Q. to measure only the genotypic component of phenotypic intelligence. [ This view is under contention in the West, but biological determinists and realists consider it truth. ]

(3) Translators’ note: The author here obviously refers to fraternal rather than identical twins. The latter, of course, are genetically identical.

(4) Translators’ note: Literally, of course, this is in error, as anthropological evidence indicates that the species, Homo sapiens, emerged 250,000 - 100,000 years ago. It is possible that the author refers here to the Neolithic period forward, which began circa 10,000 BC and during which the Chinese nation itself emerged. (In Lysenko terminology, you are born an H.sapien animal; it is society that makes you into a human.) (It is also possible that the author is being rhetorical, i.e.,,”the human species CAN be around so long, so many generations, yet man is still man.)

(5) Translators’ note: These seem to be the standard statistics for the incidence of schizophrenia for the human population as a whole (see Eugene Garfield,,”What do we know about the group of mental disorders called schizophrenia? Part 1: Etiology,” Current Contents 15 (25) 1983:5-13). The author, however, reports a substantially lower incidence for the Chinese population alone (see note 8 below).

(6) Translators’ note: The 1980 Marriage Law in China prohibits marriages between collateral relatives within three generations (see below and also Y. Tien,,”China: Demographic billionaire, ” Population Bulletin 38 (2), p. 25). Such marriages would be, in the main, first cousin marriages, which are naturally more common in a village-based economy, such as China’s, than in urban-based economies, such as those in the West. This, and the following paragraph, make the now standard argument for forbidding first cousin marriages, which is essentially to point to the statistics on
inbreeding depression. But one should note here, as the author does not, that while it is true that defective phenotypes in the next generation will decrease if inbreeding is prohibited, it is also true that the frequency of deleterious recessive genes will increase.,”As population structure changes from small isolated villages to large panmictic nations there will be a considerable increase in deleterious recessives., ” (p. 318, F. Livingston,, “Cultural causes of genetic change,” in G. Barlow and J. Silverberg, Eds., Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/Nurture? , Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1980, pp. 307-329). inbreeding, in effect, makes possible
the identification and elimination of deleterious recessive mutants and thereby acts to check the increase in the,”genetic load,” of a population. It is not without irony here that Charles Darwin himself married his first cousin, Emma Wedgwood.

(7) Translators’ note: These countries are not named by the author.

(8) Translators’ note: There are reports of a similar phenomenon in the United States. See Richard Lyons,,”Physical and Mental Disabilities in Newborns Doubled in 25 Years,” New York Times, July 18, 1983, pp. 1, IO.

(9) Translators’ note: Some idea of how far environmental pollution has gone in China may be gotten from Vaclar Smilz,”Environmental degradation in China,” Asian Survey 20 1980:777-788.

(10) Translators’ note: One catty @ .60 kilogram.

(11) Translators’ note: This is apparently the incidence for the Chinese population alone (see note 5 above). (12) Translators’ note: CCP - The Chinese Communist Party.

Note: No one with the me-first-ism Western attitude, no one too focused on individual-ism and selfishness, could possibly,”make it,” in such a society. Western people feel that it’s a “human right” to have a child, they are even outraged at the forced abortions. Socialism can’t work if it’s only for “some,” and not for all. Who is going to care for, say, all those children born with brain damage and other damage due to crack cocain, for instance? What is going to happen when those babies grow up, babies now kept alive on the public dole while healthy people can’t afford a doctor if
they get the flu or a sore throat? WHO is going to pay for them and what are they going to become in the society? Monsters? Socialism, and what can be done under Socialism, is the NEXT progressive step in the evolution of man. The consciousness or the life-paradigms of humanity have to first be changed in order for Socialist Construction to really take shape. People have to start to THINK collectively and more cooperatively and less selfishly. Einstein agreed. The Chinese are not,”going to do,” this, they HAVE BEEN doing it. All one need to do, the next time a phony leftist comes along, is show them what real Communists are like.

The Civic Platform

Interesting. For socialism -- or do they mean civilization? -- to work, they believe, you need mostly contributors and blatant removal of blatant non-contributors.

The West is no different than the East in this regard. Our greatest thinkers knew all of what was said in the above article and realize it is true; our social conventions demand we deny it, however.

For example, intelligence is heritable. And while the West makes a big deal of "individual rights," we also have no problem failing to support people who contribute but do not generate income, so clearly "rights" is a smokescreen for something else, e.g. the ability of individuals to be selfish at the expense of society -- a trait held in common by all declining societies, as Toynbee showed us.

So while the (obviously liberal, hence delusional) translator tried to show us how different we in the West and China are, what he or she really showed to me is how similar we are -- or would be, if we dropped useless pretense and focused on reality.


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